02 Nov Topic 8 Reading Exercises from:Copi, Irving M. In
Topic 8 Reading Exercises from:Copi, Irving M. Introduction to Logic, 14th Edition. Routledge.For each of the following enthymematic arguments: Example Problem Transgenic animals are manmade and as such are patentable.—Alan E. Smith, cited in Genetic Engineering (San Diego, CA: Greenhaven Press, 1990) Example Solution All manmade things are patentable things.All transgenic animals are manmade things.Therefore, all transgenic animals are patentable things. *15. Man tends to increase at a greater rate than his means of subsistence; consequently he is occasionally subject to a severe struggle for existence. —Charles Darwin, The Descent of Man, 1871 —Stephen Miller, “Adam Smith and the Commercial Republic,” The Public Interest, Fall 1980 —Burton M. Leiser, Liberty, Justice, and Morals, 1986 —John Dewey, Reconstruction in Philosophy, 1920 —George E. Dimock, Jr., Introduction to Iphigeneia at Aulis by Euripides, 1992 —Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics —Epicurus, Fragment XL, Vatican CollectionIdentify the form of each of the following arguments and state whether the argument is valid or invalid:If a man could not have done otherwise than he in fact did, then he is not responsible for his action. But if determinism is true, it is true of every action that the agent could not have done otherwise. Therefore, if determinism is true, no one is ever responsible for what he does.—Winston Nesbit and Stewart Candlish, “Determinism and the Ability to Do Otherwise,” Mind, July 1978This is a pure hypothetical syllogism. Valid.—Arthur Conan Doyle, The Adventure of Silver Blaze —Aristotle, Physics —Thomas Aquinas, Summa Theologiae, I, question 2, article 3 —Sextus Empiricus, Against the Logicians, second century CE —G. E. Moore, Some Main Problems of Philosophy (New York: Allen & Unwin, 1953) —C. D. Broad, Scientific Thought, 1923Bring together all tools for assessing arguments, discuss (in your own words) what might be offered to refute each of the following:—Victoria Schuck, “Watergate,” The Key Reporter, Winter 1975–1976 —James Madison, The Federalist Papers, no. 46, 1788 —Plato, Meno —James Challenger, “What to Do—and Not to Do—When Job Hunting,” U.S. News & World Report, 6 August 1984 —Daniel Seligman, “Keeping Up,” Fortune, 7 January 1985
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