23 Nov Once you have a purpose, a question, and a design
Once you have a purpose, a question, and a design in mind, you will be in a good position to determine the best methods for obtaining a sample and collecting data. Some of the various sampling and data collection methods, as covered in this week’s readings, can be used across different research designs—quantitative, qualitative, or mixed. Again, as in previous weeks, the important consideration is to ensure that there is alignment among the various components of a research study, including its purpose, research questions, design, sample, and methods. As you consider sampling strategies and methods for collecting data, you might visit Walden University’s Participant Pool to view the descriptions of research studies currently available for participation. You will likely notice a variety of sampling methods reflected in participant eligibility criteria and various data collection methods being used by student and faculty researchers in the Walden community. This week, you will evaluate the strengths and limitations of sampling methods and data collection methods, and you will consider their ethical implications. You will also develop an annotated bibliography of quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methods research articles. • Defend sampling methods • Explain strengths and limitations of data collection methods • Apply strategies for addressing ethical issues in data collection • Develop an annotated bibliography • Apply APA Style to writing Discussion: Sampling and Collecting Quantitative and Qualitative Data It is often not possible or practical to study an entire population, so researchers draw samples from which they make inferences about a population of interest. In quantitative research, where generalization to a population is typically valued, a researcher’s ability to make such inferences is only as good as the sampling strategy she or he uses to obtain the sample. Once an appropriate sample has been obtained, data collection should involve valid and reliable measures to ensure confidence in the results, as well as the ability to generalize the research outcomes. Although generalization is typically not a goal in qualitative research, sampling is just as important in qualitative and mixed methods research, as is obtaining reliable and valid results. Indeed, for quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methods research, sampling strategies and accurate data collection methods are critical aspects of the research process. Specific methods of data collection (e.g., surveys, interviews, observations) produce specific types of data that will answer particular research questions, but not others; so here too, as covered in previous weeks, the research questions inform how the data will be obtained. Furthermore, the method used to collect the data may impact the reliability and the validity of that data. For this Discussion, you will first consider sampling strategies. Then, you will turn your attention to data collection methods, including their strengths, limitations, and ethical implications. Last, you will consider measurement reliability and validity in the context of your discipline. Position A: Probability sampling represents the best strategy for selecting research participants. A restatement of your assigned position on sampling strategies. Defend your position with examples and support from the scholarly literature. Next, select a data collection method and briefly explain its strengths and limitations. Then, identify a potential ethical issue with this method and describe a strategy to address it. Last, explain the relationship between measurement reliability and measurement validity using an example from your discipline. Be sure to support your Main Issue Post and Response Post with reference to the week’s Learning Resources and other scholarly evidence in APA Style. Teddlie, C., & Yu, F. (2007). Mixed methods sampling: A typology with examples. Journal of Mixed Methods Research, 1(1), 77–100. doi: 10.1177/2345678906292430 Retrieved from the Walden Library databases. Onwuegbuzie, A. J., & Collins, K. M. (2007). A typology of mixed methods sampling designs in social science research. The Qualitative Report, 12(2), 281–316. Retrieved from http://nsuworks.nova.edu/tqr/vol12/iss2/9 Drost, E. A. (2011). Validity and reliability in social science research. Education Research and Perspectives, 38(1), 105–124.
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