25 Sep Assignment: Your submission should be a minimum of
Assignment: Your submission should be a minimum of 2000 words (maximum 2500 words) in length and should completely answer the proposed questions/items as listed under “Overview”. You should have a minimum of three (3) references. APA formatting is required and all responses should be combined into a single document for submission. Defining the Community (I ANSWERED THE QUESTIONS FURTHER BELOW) Your community should be within a specifically designated geographic location. One must clearly delineate the following dimensions before starting the process of community assessment. (overview) • Describe the population that is being assessed? • What is/are the race(s) of this population within the community? • Are there boundaries of this group? If so, what are they? • Does this community exist within a certain city or county? • Are there general characteristics that separate this group from others? • Education levels, birth/death rates, age of deaths, insured/uninsured? • Where is this group located geographically…? Urban/rural? • Why is a community assessment being performed? What purpose will it serve? • How will information for the community assessment be collected? Assessment: After the community has been defined, the next phase is assessment. The following items describe several resources and methods that can be used to gather and generate data. These items serve as a starting point for data collection. This is not an all-inclusive list of resources and methods that may be used when a community assessment is conducted. The time frame for completion of the assessment may influence which methods are used. Nonetheless, these items should be reviewed to determine what information will be useful to collect about the community that is being assessed. It is not necessary to use all of these resources and methods; however, use of a variety of methods is helpful when one is exploring the needs of a community. Data Gathering (collecting information that already exists) Demographics of the Community When demographic data are collected, it is useful to collect data from a variety of levels so comparisons can be made.If the population that is being assessed is located within a specific setting, it may be best to contact that agency to retrieve specific information about that population. The following resources provide a broad overview of the demographics of a city, county, or state: American Fact Finder—Find population, housing, and economic and geographic data for your city based on U.S. Census data State and County Quick Facts—Easy access to facts about people, business, and geography, based on U.S. Census data Obtain information about a specific city or county on these useful websites: www.epodunk.com and www.city-data.com Information from Government Agencies Healthy People 2020—this resource is published by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. It identifies health improvement goals and objectives for the country to be reached by the year 2020 National Center for Health Statistics—this agency is part of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; this website provides statistical information about the health of Americans National Vital Statistics System Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)—The CDC website contains a large amount of information related to the health of the American population. The search engine within this website can be used to find relevant information Federal agencies with statistical programs Every state in the United States has its own specific health improvement plan and goals that are based on the Healthy People 2020 document. This information may be available on the state health department website. State and local health departments provide information related to vital statistics for the community. Other Data Sources America’s Health Rankings—this website provides information about various health indicators for each state Other relevant data sources may be found by conducting an Internet search related to the topic that is being examined through the community assessment. After data are collected from various sources, it is important to review the information and to identify assets and areas for improvement in the community by comparing local data (if available) versus state and national data. This will facilitate organization of the information that has already been obtained and will provide direction for the next step of the process. Data Generation (data are developed that do not already exist) Windshield Surveys With the use of public transportation or by driving a vehicle around the community, one can observe common characteristics of the community. Examples of key observations to make when one is assessing the community through a windshield survey include the following: Age of the homes in the community Location of parks and other recreational areas Amount of space between homes and businesses Neighborhood hangouts Transportation in the community Quality and safety of streets and sidewalks Stores and other businesses People out in the community Cleanliness of the community Billboards or other media displays Places of worship Healthcare facilities Participant Observation Spend time observing the population that is being assessed. Through observation of interactions among group members, much can be learned about the community, including the following: Developmental level of the population, Effectiveness of peer-to-peer interactions, Respect for peers and others, Safety in the environment. Economic status, Informant Interview, Informants could be people who are familiar with and interact with the population on a regular basis. Examples of questions that may be asked of key informants include the following: Strengths/assets of the community, Areas of improvement for the community, Concerns of community members, Access to health care, Emergency plans for natural or man-made disasters Focus Groups; Focus groups (usually small groups of 6-12 people) can be helpful when one is gathering information about specific areas of concern within the population. Use of a focus group involves open dialogue about the population, whereas an interview or survey yields only individual responses. Focus groups may be effective for assessing the following: Satisfaction with services provided, Community resources used, Transportation issues within the community, Safety within the community, General concerns of members of the population Surveys Surveys may be used to collect data from the community. Selecting a sample of the target population may prove helpful in the collection of data that are easier to analyze. It is important to ensure that the sample is representative of the target population. A survey should be developed that takes into consideration the developmental level of the group that is being assessed. Questions should be written at the appropriate developmental level, so they are answered in a way that makes the data useful. Surveys might include closed-ended (yes/no), multiple choice (several responses to choose from), Likert scale (Strongly Agree/Agree/Neutral/Disagree/Strongly Disagree), or open-ended (“why”/“how”) questions. Topics that may be addressed in a survey include the following: Demographic information- Status of employment, Safety within community, Safety in environment, Personal safety (seatbelts, helmets, etc.), Stressors/stress management patterns, Risky behaviors Support systems, Volunteer/community activities, Rest patterns, Nutrition, Dental hygiene,Health promotion activities (BELOW IS MY RESEARCH) My community assessment is weight management. Data gathering (wind shield surveys) Age of homes are >75 years old and noted to be in poor conditions with some fractured windows and unkept yards. There all single-family homes, predominantly a Hispanic community. Community parks are within walking distance, 2-4 miles I noted the space between the houses are roughly 15-25 feet Neighborhood hangouts- The South Side of San Antonio is its own little world. South Park mall, Mama Margie’s Mexican restaurant, the Mayan Palace theatre are the local hangouts and some small community owned bars. Transportation—VIA buses, personal vehicles and bicycles. Quality of the streets are poor. The subdivisions often lack basic pedestrian amenities such as well lighted streets which are either broken or missing. Side walks are in need or repair with slabs uneven or broken and are not wheelchair friendly. As this area is an older part of the city some streets do not have sidewalks for pedestrians to walk on and must walk on the street or on someone’s property. I did not see many people out in the streets, maybe due to the cold weather and the time of day as many are already at work. Local grocery stores and other businesses included; Mexican restaurants, pizza hut, Mc Donald’s, PICA PICA shopping center, La Fiesta, H-E-B, gas stations, many small local business such as tire shops, cell phone shops, auto part stores, mechanic shops, pawn shops, money loan businesses, liquor store, and other small businesses. I did not see any bookstores or libraries. Billboards promoted; breast feeding, H-E-B, local NBA team, presidential nominees and WIC (Women and children’s) and insurance companies Place of Worship – Saint John Burcham (Catholic church) Healthcare facilities- Baptist emergency room or South west general hospital. I saw several primary care physician and dental offices My group consisted of 6 women; ages ranged 24-45 years of age and yearly income ranged from 25-40k Informant Interviews: I started my conversation with the purpose of my discussion. The health risk associated with overweight and obesity for example, the risk of type 2 diabetes, heart disease, kidney disease, and stroke. I took into consideration that this can be a sensitive and personal subject for some and was mindful of how I worded my questions. I began by asking if they felt comfortable talking about this subject and they were all receptive and consented to my questions. Some words I used to promote conversation was not using “obese” but instead “excess body weight” or not using “disease” but instead “medical conditions”. I asked open ended questions such as “how are you feeling about your weight at this point in time?”, “what physical activity do you do and how often do you do this type of workout?”; “what kinds of foods and beverages do you consume and drink on a typical day?” “can you describe your daily eating habits?”, “do you eat when you’re bored and what type of foods do you eat?”, “what would make your change your eating or physical activity habits?”, “what has worked for you in the past to help you reach your goals”, “do you consider medical conditions as passed down traits and acquired?” and “how much control do you feel you have over your weight and health?” We discussed health benefits of being active and what activities they might like. One of my recommendations included walking 30 minutes a day 3 days a week for 3 months. Discussed the benefits of walking and physical activity did not have to be rigorous or expensive. We discussed if they felt replacing soda’s with water was possible and if not what other healthy substitutes would they drink instead of soda. Other healthy options for substitution was peanuts or other forms of nuts, and veggies instead of chips or cookies. Strengths/assets of the community- The south side community is growing with new affordable homes, new schools, and new business growth. Areas of improvement for the community- Streets need repairs, more streetlights, neighborhood watch programs, businesses that promote health such as gyms, restaurants with healthy choice meals choices instead of fast food options, businesses that promote education such as libraries, book stores, and after school programs. Concerns of community members- Safety due to local gangs, lack of police officer surveillance, lack of out reach programs or community programs for young teenagers. Access to health care- There are health and dental clinics available in the area but due to lack of insurance health promotion is an issue. One out of my six did not have medical insurance and I recommended Centro Med – Maria Castro Flores Clinic -Accepts: Uninsured, Underinsured, Insurance, Medicare, Medicaid. Focus Groups Community resources used- San Antonio food banks, WIC program, churches, or a federal government program or state of Texas program such as Guadalupe Community Center for low income families. Transportation issues within the community- Most members agreed that transportation was not an issue. Bus Fare: $1.30 single trip, $2.75 unlimited Day Pass. Reduced fares for seniors, children under age 5, active-duty military, and students are available. Surveys Demographic information- Hispanic living in the southside communities Status of employment- five out of six were employed full time; one is a stay at home mom. Safety within community- want more police officers. Many neighbors are long time residents and communicate with each other if safety concerns. Personal safety (seatbelts, helmets, etc.)- one rides a motorcycle, does not wear helmet. Others report wearing seatbelts when riding in a car. Stressors/stress management patterns- Most of them states they worry about finances, bills and healthcare, with safety of their children as gangs are present in the area and future plans for their kids such as college as they feel they cannot afford it. . Risky behaviors- All members drink occasional beer or wine, 1-2 drinks/week. They all denied smoking or illicit drugs. Five are married and report being in a monogamy relationship, the other is single and reports having two partners last 12 months, does not use protective barrier with partners. The one member who rides a motorcycle does not wear a helmet and feels she is a safe driver and does not need to worry. Support systems- Hispanic community is cohesive and they rely with each other and prayer Volunteer/community activities- Out of my 6 women, one mentioned she occasionally volunteers at her child’s school. The other women say they are too busy with work and kids and do not have time to volunteer. Rest patterns- They all denied issues with sleeping and sleep on average 8 hrs. a night. Nutrition- Hispanic culture such as rice, beans, tortillas, beef, chicken, fideo, soda and coffee. Dental hygiene- One of my participants did not have medical or dental insurance. Provided information on UT Health Science Center, its affordable due to being seen by dental students. The other five report having dental insurance and seeing dentist at least once a year. Health promotion activities- I discussed the local YMCA offers free Zumba classes on Tues and Thursday. Walking in the neighborhood when possible and going to the local park on weekends when they can.
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